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Global Hyper Saline Power Generation
Qattara Depression Potential

This article is a synopsis of the past and current technology development schemes created to propose the potential of generating power by the physical phenomenon of osmosis. In addition, it offers a new concept in exploring the potential of the Qattara Depression of Egypt and the like, not only for generating power, but also for creating vibrant living communities from these desolate lands.

Osmosis is nature’s gift to life. It is the vehicle that transports fluids in all living cells and without it, all biological functions and all forms of life cease to exist! Osmosis is the spontaneous movement of water, through a semi - permeable membrane tha t is permeable to water but impermeable to solute. Water moves from a solution in which solute is less concentrated to a solution in which solute is more concentrated. The driving force of the flow movement is the difference in the chemical potential on th e two sides of the semi - permeable membrane, with the solvent moving from a region of higher potential (generally of a lower solute concentration) to the region of lower potential (generally of a higher solute concentration).

The term “Chemical Potential” at times can be ambiguous and elusive. In fact, it is one of the most important partial molal quantities. It is the energy source associated with the activity of the ions of an ionizable substance. It is equal to the rate of change in free energy of a syste m containing a number of moles of such substance. Chemical potential can be viewed as another form of energy like electrical, gravitational, momentum, magnetic, surface tension, etc.

Thermodynamically, this energy is expressed in terms of what is conventi onally known as Gibbs free energy. To prevent water permeation across the semipermeable membrane, a pressure has to be imposed against the permeated flow to equalize the force created by the chemical potential difference across that membrane. This force is named osmotic pressure. If the imposed pressure exceeds this limit, then water begins to flow from the region of higher solute concentration to the region of lower solute concentration. In this case, the force is named reverse osmosis pressure.

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